The aim of this work package is to contribute to the establishment, operation and modification of Josephson voltage standards by less experienced institutes . Much work has been carried out in European NMIs over the last years and the major players in this research area, namely PTB and NPL, will transfer their expertise to other institutes developing research capability, specifically CEM, BEV-PTP, CMI, FER, IPQ and FCT-UNL, JV, GUM, SIQ and TUBITAK. The transfer of experience will include tutorials on quantum based voltage measurements and share of practical expertise on the implementation and use of the standards together.

The practical expertise to be developed will include two research activities to be carried out by the partners developing research capability. In order to optimise efforts, the electrical quantities that share similar systems have been grouped in two areas, the first related with digital and the second with analogue systems:

  1. analogue to digital converters and digital to analogue converters, power measurements
  2. impedance measurements, and thermal converters calibration, AC voltage source calibration, AC voltmeter calibration.

A questionnaire was sent to the institutes developing capacity to identify the areas in which they intend to develop capacities and where it would be more suitable to perform the practical measurements, NPL or PTB as both have the expertise in the areas considered.

This work will enable the less experienced institutes to establish, operate and modify quantum voltage standards and will increase the capacity for joint research and development within Europe. In addition, by focusing on the most demanded areas of AC quantum voltage, the research activities to be carried out in this WP will fit the interest of all the institutes involved and the metrology community in general.