JRP Coordinator:

Javier Díaz de Aguilar

Jefe de laboratorio de alterna

Office  + 34 91 8 07 47 66

Laboratory + 34 91 8 07 47 88

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CEM, C/Alfar, 2. 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid



Martin Šíra

Laboratory of DC/LF Electrical Quantities

Office +420 545 555 302

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CMI, Okružní 31, 638 00 Brno

One of the long term research objectives defined in the EURAMET “Science and technology Roadmap for Metrology” is to make AC quantum voltage standards the basis for AC metrology. The necessary research to achieve this started 20 years ago and the work will continue for several years. The project will contribute to this overall objective by making cutting–edge knowledge accessible to all the European NMIs working on AC quantum voltage standards and by establishing a basis for future cooperation.

With the knowledge acquired in WP1 and WP2, less experienced NMIs will develop their individual strategic plans for the development of AC quantum voltage standards in the next five years. These strategies will consider the development of either individual or collaborative quantum standards, or an agreement to the future use of other NMI standards. The individual strategies will be further discussed with the other participant institutes to ensure a coordinated development of the European research and measurement infrastructure from the early beginning. The plans will also include a strategy for offering calibration services in the established facilities to their own country and neighbouring countries.

A group will be created to work on the basis for a future European collaboration in AC metrology. The group will include project partners, some potential collaborators and other experts (including non-European).

The aim of this work package is to consolidate the practical knowledge on AC quantum voltage standards into one document, a Good Practice Guide, to be used by laboratories who wish to construct a new apparatus for their own research programme. The Good Practice Guide will include the consolidated configuration for a general AC quantum voltage standard. The review of the different methods will include partners with expertise and partners wanting to develop capabilities on the topics to be included in the guide. The topics to be included in the guide may include the different areas of expertise:

  • Josephson junction arrays designs;
  • Electronic sources for low-frequency bias of Josephson junction arrays;
  • Microwave sources for high-frequency bias of Josephson junction arrays;
  • Construction of low-temperature (4 K) systems, both using liquid helium and cryogen-free techniques;
  • Measurement methods including RMS, direct sampling and differential sampling;
  • Practical techniques including operation of Josephson junctions, system configurations, cable interconnections.

The aim of this work package is to contribute to the establishment, operation and modification of Josephson voltage standards by less experienced institutes . Much work has been carried out in European NMIs over the last years and the major players in this research area, namely PTB and NPL, will transfer their expertise to other institutes developing research capability, specifically CEM, BEV-PTP, CMI, FER, IPQ and FCT-UNL, JV, GUM, SIQ and TUBITAK. The transfer of experience will include tutorials on quantum based voltage measurements and share of practical expertise on the implementation and use of the standards together.

The practical expertise to be developed will include two research activities to be carried out by the partners developing research capability. In order to optimise efforts, the electrical quantities that share similar systems have been grouped in two areas, the first related with digital and the second with analogue systems:

  1. analogue to digital converters and digital to analogue converters, power measurements
  2. impedance measurements, and thermal converters calibration, AC voltage source calibration, AC voltmeter calibration.

A questionnaire was sent to the institutes developing capacity to identify the areas in which they intend to develop capacities and where it would be more suitable to perform the practical measurements, NPL or PTB as both have the expertise in the areas considered.

This work will enable the less experienced institutes to establish, operate and modify quantum voltage standards and will increase the capacity for joint research and development within Europe. In addition, by focusing on the most demanded areas of AC quantum voltage, the research activities to be carried out in this WP will fit the interest of all the institutes involved and the metrology community in general.

This website provides information about the
Joint Research Project 14RPT01 ACQ-PRO.

The project runtime is from 1. 6. 2015 to 31. 5. 2018.


The Project

News and events



Project details on Euramet website.



Funded JRP-Partners:

  • CEM,  Centro Español de Metrología,  Spain
  • BEV-PTP, Physikalisch-Technischer Pruefdienst des Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Austria
  • CMI, Český Metrologický Insitut, Czech Republic
  • FER, Sveuciliste U Zagrebu Fakultet Elektrotehnike I Racunarstva, Croatia
  • GUM, Central Office of Measures, Poland
  • INRIM,  Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy
  • IPQ, Instituto Português da Qualidade, I.P., Portugal
  • JV, Justervesenet, Norway
  • NPL,  NPL Management Limited, United Kingdom
  • PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
  • SIQ, Slovenski Institut za Kakovost in Meroslovje, Slovenia
  • TUBITAK, Turkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Arastirma Kurumu, Turkey
  • FCT-UNL, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal



(Download Summary of the project as pdf file)

The overall objective of the project is to develop the European measurement and research capacity by providing European NMIs and DIs the access to AC quantum voltage references, therefore contributing to spread the capacity to countries or regions in Europe where access to these facilities is currently limited. The project will also establish the basis for the future collaboration between metrological institutes working on AC quantum voltage standards. This will allow the European NMIs to provide direct traceability to the future definition of the SI, to improve their CMCs to the quantum level and to build a research capacity with European dimension.

The specific scientific and technological objectives of the project are:

  1. To transfer experience and expertise in different and specific technologies to enable the integration, operation and modification of AC quantum voltage standards. Pioneering work carried out in European NMIs over the last few years in the field of AC quantum voltage metrology will be shared with the less experienced NMIs. The purpose is not only to provide the infrastructure but also the capacity to improve the measurement technology through continuing research and development.
    (Work Package 1)
  2. To design a new practical AC quantum voltage infrastructure accessible to all NMIs, which is easy to implement and operate, maintaining the potential research capacity. The design should be for a consolidated AC quantum voltage standard based on the knowledge acquired in previous research projects, where different types of approaches were followed. The objective is to define a simplified subsystem that could be used for all AC quantum voltage applications (e.g. thermal voltage calibration, digital impedance bridge). The interoperability of this subsystem is a key requisite. In addition, the consortium will define the requirements to use common software for the AC quantum voltage infrastructures.
    (Work package 2)
  3. To produce a Good Practice Guide on the use of AC quantum voltage standards including guidance on development and validation of measurement methods for different specialised applications.
    (Work package 2)
  4. To establish the basis for future cooperation between European NMIs working on AC quantum voltage standards research and the further propagation of their use. For this, a working group on AC quantum voltage standards will be created that will work in close collaboration with the relevant existent technical groups and committees, specifically with the EURAMET TC-EM: on “DC & Quantum Metrology”, “Low Frequency” and “Power and Energy”. Web pages and training course will also be used.
    (Work package 3)
  5. To create an individual strategy for the long-term development of the research capability in AC quantum voltage metrology for each NMI/DI partner developing capability in project. Individual strategies will include priorities for collaborations with the research community in the respective country, the establishment of appropriate quality schemes and accreditation. Long-term individual strategies will also include a proposal for offering calibration services, in the established facilities, within the country and neighbouring countries. The individual strategies will be discussed within the consortium and with other EURAMET NMIs/DIs (e.g. LNE, SP, VSL), to ensure that a coordinated and optimised approach to the development of traceability in this field is developed for Europe as a whole.
    The future plans will consider the possible cooperation of some NMIs to build and use shared AC quantum infrastructures depending on the particular needs of each country.
    (Work package 3)